The history of the great Inca culture, as espoused in most books, and presented by most guides is full of factual errors; let’s go through some of them here:
It is believed by most academics that the Inca developed as a distinct society on the Island of the Sun and Island of the Moon in Lake Titicaca. However, this has in fact never been proven. All of the architecture on these islands, as seen above is very primitive.
They are said to have left the Lake Titicaca area about 1000 AD, and founded the city of Cusco at about that time. Above, the Coricancha is believed to have been the first building they constructed. But where would they have received the knowledge to do such impressive stone work? That is a question most guides and academics ignore.
You can see the Inca work on the right side of the above photo; relatively small stones integrated into a previous megalithic construction created long before their arrival. Thus, the Inca were not the “founders” of Cusco, they FOUND it. The earlier builders had vastly superior technology, and were likely called the Perhuas, from which we get the word Peru.
There was never such a thing as the Inca “empire.” It was in fact a confederation of states, with Cusco being the center. Unfortunately most that has been written about the Inca comes from Spanish chronicles. The Inca themselves kept most of their knowledge from these ruthless conquerors, in an attempt to protect their cultural integrity. The conventional history is thus blurred.
The famous Inca Trail leading to Machu Pic’chu is but a tiny part of their road system, which in total was about 25,000 miles long, from Colombia in the north to the middle of Chile and Argentina in the south, and into the Amazon. The Inca were ingenious at building rope bridges to interconnect many roads and trails. But the original road system was an inheritance from much older cultures.
The Inca never made artistic depictions of their leaders, and thus we do not know what they looked like. Just prior to the arrival of the Spanish in Cusco, the entire Inca royal family (who were the true Inca, not the general population) had been slaughtered in a civil war. Thus, even early Spanish portraits do not present a genuine depiction.
The Inca knew the concept of the wheel, as seen in this spindle used for spinning wool. Due to the hilly and mountainous nature of the Inca world, carts with wheels would have been useless. Thus, the Inca used Llama instead to move things. One Llama can carry 50 pounds, and sometimes 1000 were used to move vast amounts of goods.
The Inca had 2 forms of recording their language. The Khipu system of knotted cords used for accounting purposes, but recent revelations from Harvard PhD Gary Urton show that the Khipu was also a binary code, with the ability to convert words into numbers. A very advanced concept.
Even Machu Pic’chu was not completely made from scratch by the Inca. As you can see in the above photo, lower sections of some of the structures are far superior to the upper areas. My estimation is that between 5 and 10 percent of Machu Pic’chu predates the Inca. They clearly found the remnants of a megalithic site, like Cusco, and built around it.